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03-Dec-2018 09:37

Fundamentally, it is not surprising that men and women can differ.

At the very least, cells from males contain a Y chromosome, express the Sry gene, and males produce testosterone (T) in the testes ().

Identifying and understanding key signalling mechanisms bridging genomics/sex hormones and microvascular exchange properties within the scope of this review holds significant promise for sex-specific prevention and treatment of vascular barrier dysfunction.

Fluid distribution between the vascular and tissue compartments in all living beings is a controlled variable.

Volume homeostasis, as proposed by Starling in 1896, is achieved when the forces governing fluid movement, set up by transmural gradients in hydrostatic (Δ Unstated assumptions are that the mechanisms whereby fluid homeostasis is achieved, how they vary with disease, and how they respond to treatments are the same for males and females.

This brief review explores the extent to which these assumptions are true, when they appear not to be true, why we care, and what research needs to be conducted.

Of note, collecting lymphatics contract spontaneously under physiological conditions and could support both transient re-absorption and filtration by failing to achieve steady-state conditions.

The equations illustrate that multiple parameters influence exchange substantially.

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In most organs, the anatomical location of the major vessels is indistinguishable among the sexes.

This review focuses on sex differences of parameters influencing exchange at the point of union between blood and tissue, the microvasculature.

Microvascular architecture, blood pressure (hydrostatic and oncotic), and vascular permeability, therefore, are discussed in the specific context of sex in health and disorders.

The premise of this review is that while both sexes possess the same structural elements and are in fluid balance, how those elements function to achieve homeostasis with respect to the CV system differs (from subtly to profoundly).

Manifestations of these differences have real consequences relative to how and when fluid and solute exchange are disrupted, how these dysfunctions can be prevented, and the strategies for ameliorating or treating these manifestations effectively.

In most organs, the anatomical location of the major vessels is indistinguishable among the sexes.

This review focuses on sex differences of parameters influencing exchange at the point of union between blood and tissue, the microvasculature.

Microvascular architecture, blood pressure (hydrostatic and oncotic), and vascular permeability, therefore, are discussed in the specific context of sex in health and disorders.

The premise of this review is that while both sexes possess the same structural elements and are in fluid balance, how those elements function to achieve homeostasis with respect to the CV system differs (from subtly to profoundly).

Manifestations of these differences have real consequences relative to how and when fluid and solute exchange are disrupted, how these dysfunctions can be prevented, and the strategies for ameliorating or treating these manifestations effectively.

The postulated mechanisms responsible for sex differences are attributed to genomics, epigenetics, and sex hormones.